D. Phil. in Politics, Social Sciences Department, Oxford University. He has published extensively including ‘Juan Vicente Gómez and the Oil Companies in Venezuela, 1908-1935’ (Cambridge University Press, 1983); ‘British Oil Policy, 1919 1939’ (London, Frank Cass & Co., 1985); ‘Petroleum in Venezuela: A Bibliography (Boston, G.K. Hall & Co., 1985);‘Gunboats, Corruption and Claims: Foreign Intervention in Venezuela, 1899-1908’ Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press, 2001); and ‘Dictatorship and Politics: Intrigue, Betrayal, and Survival in Venezuela, 1908–1935’ (Notre Dame University press, 2008); His latest book is ‘La Política Petrolera Venezolana: Una perspectiva histórica, 1922-2005’ (Caracas, Universidad Metropolitana, 2015.) His main research interest is in the history of the oil industry. He is currently working on a major study of Venezuela’s 1943 Oil law as well as examining in a separate study the economic impact the oil concessionaires had on Venezuela during the Gómez dictatorship. He is a former Director of Schroder Securities Ltd.